اذهب الى الأسفل


مُساهمة  Amin Ortega في الخميس أكتوبر 29, 2009 11:58 pm

المشروع الأول لمادة الانجليزية لكن الصور غير مضمنة study study study


Peace is commonly understood as the absence of hostility, or the existence of healthy or newly-healed interpersonal or international relationships, safety in matters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships and, in world matters, peacetime; a state of being absent of any war or conflict. Reflection on the nature of peace is also bound up with considerations of the causes for its absence or loss. Among these potential causes are: insecurity, social injustice, economic inequality, political and religious radicalism, and acute racism and nationalism.
From the Anglo-Norman pas , and meaning "freedom from civil disorder", the English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the biblical terms pax (from the Vulgate) and Greek eirene, which in turn were renderings of the Hebrew shalom. Shalom, cognate with the Arabic "salaam", has multiple meanings: safety, welfare, prosperity, security, fortune, friendliness. The personalized meaning is reflected in a nonviolent lifestyle, which also describes a relationship between any people characterized by respect, justice and goodwill. This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual's sense of himself or herself, as to be "at peace" with one's own mind attested in Europe from c.1200. The early English term is also used in the sense of "quiet", reflecting a calm, serene, and meditative approach to the family or group relationships that avoids quarreling and seeks tranquility — an absence of disturbance or agitation.
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.
Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created. This short list is then considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are then considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision, but this is not always possible
While world peace is theoretically possible, some believe that it is impossible to achieve.
The plausibility of world peace tacitly relies on the assumption of rational agents that base their decisions on future consequences, which is not self-evident
If peace is defined as the absence of hostility, violence and conflict, world peace would imply a worldwide end to violence and thus to institutions which rely on threats of violence to sustain their existence. It follows that there could be no law enforcement, because force is a form of violence. Without law enforcement, there could be no laws, except those which everyone voluntarily agrees to follow. Finally, there could be no governments of the type that rely on threats of violence to collect taxes, maintain their borders, or govern their citizens. Considered in this light, world peace goes beyond the cessation of nation-state warfare and calls for dramatic changes in most of the political institutions familiar to people worldwide.

1999 Médecins Sans Frontières
Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents
2000 Kim Dae Jung
South Korea
"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[

2001 United Nations Kofi Annan Ghana
"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
2002 Jimmy Carter United States
"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[

2003 Shirin Ebadi Iran

"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children
2004 Wangari Muta Maathai Kenya
"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"
2005 International Atomic Energy Agency
Austria "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
Mohamed ElBaradei Egypt
2006 Muhammad Yunus Bangladesh
"for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"
2007 Grameen Bank Bangladesh Al Gore
United States "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
2008 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Switzerland
Martti Ahtisaari Finland
"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"
2009 Barack Obama United States
"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."

Yasser Arafat (24 August 1929 in Cairo–11 November 2004) was a Palestinian leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority, and leader of the Fatah political party, which he founded in 1959. Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242.
Arafat and his movement operated from several Arab countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Fatah faced off with Jordan in a brief civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon, Arafat and Fatah were major targets of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country. He was "revered by many Arabs," and the majority of the Palestinian people, regardless of political ideology or faction, viewed him as a freedom fighter who symbolized their national aspirations. However, he was "reviled by many Israelis" and described "in much of the West as the world's number one terrorist" for the attacks his faction led against civilians.
Later in his career, Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the government of Israel to end the decades-long conflict between that country and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Lolso and the 2000 Camp David Summit. His political rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. In 1994, Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. During this time, Hamas and other militant organizations rose to power and shook the foundations of the authority that Fatah under Arafat had established in the Palestinian territories.
In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat became ill, fell into a coma and died on 11 November 2004 at the age of 75. While the exact cause of his death remains unknown and no autopsy was performed, his doctors spoke of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and cirrhosis.

Barack Hussein Obama born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current president of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office, as well as the
first president born in Hawaii. Obama previously served as the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008.
Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004.
Obama served three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama ran for United States Senate in 2004. During the campaign, several events brought him to national attention, such as his victory in the March 2004 Democratic primary election for the United States Senator from Illinois as well as his prime-time televised keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He won election to the U.S. Senate in November 2004.
He began his run for the presidency in February 2007. After a close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries against Hillary Clinton, he won his party's nomination. In the 2008 general election, he defeated Republican nominee John McCain and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. On October 9, 2009, Obama was awarded the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.

Shirin Ebadi (born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, human rights activist and founder of Centre for the Defence of Human Rights in Iran. On October 10, 2003, Ebadi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially women's, children's, and refugee rights. She was the first ever Iranian, and the first Muslim woman to have received the prize.
Since receiving the nobel prize Ebadi has lectured, taught and received awards in different countries, issued statements and defended people accused of political crimes in Iran. She has traveled to and spoken to audiences in India, the United States, and other countries; released her autobiography in an English translation; participated in the Nobel Women's Initiative along with five other Nobel Laureates.
In April 2008 she told Reuters news agency that Iran's human rights record had regressed in the past two years. and agreed to defend Baha’is arrested in Iran in May 2008.
In April 2008 Ebadi released a statement saying: "Threats against my life and security and those of my family, which began some time ago, have intensified," and that the threats warned her against making speeches abroad, and defending Iran's minority Baha'i community.
In December 2008, Iranian police shut down the office of a human rights group led by her. Another human rights group, Human Rights Watch, has said it was "extremely worried" about Ebadi's safety

of reasons of putting an end to the Ethiopia-Eritrea bloody conflict and using his diplomatic skills in putting an end to a long war between Iraq and Iran.

His most important contribution, was bringing peace and reconciliation to the people of Algeria and through awarding him the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize the Nobel Committee would be supporting and strengthening the peace process in Algeria.
Of reasons of protection the worker's rights in Algeria and the world by her democratic experiences and its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law .And for the interesting of women as a member of the society

World peace is not a utopian dream -- it is within our grasp.
Wars are caused by conflicting ideas on what is acceptable national behaviour. The urge to exert national will and protect perceived rights, however irrational, ... is a powerful emotion. Wars begin in the minds of men.
For world peace, the upper brain must be in control
World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or peoples. World peace is a Utopian idea of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance which prevents warfare. Although the term is sometimes used to refer to a cessation of all hostility among all individuals, world peace more commonly refers to a permanent end to global and regional wars with future conflicts resolved through nonviolent means.[/left]
Amin Ortega
Amin Ortega
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تاريخ التسجيل : 28/10/2009
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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مُساهمة  زائر في الجمعة أكتوبر 30, 2009 5:50 pm

thank you for this project
your friend
from classroom 2
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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مُساهمة  chouchou41 في الأربعاء أكتوبر 20, 2010 10:03 pm

thanks for this great project


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تاريخ التسجيل : 17/10/2010
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